The unrest and the opposition movement began in September 1988 with negotiations between the Karabakh Committee and Gorbachev taking place throughout most of 1989. While foreign doctors did assist with the Chernobyl incident, the Soviet relief effort after the earthquake was augmented by the largest foreign cooperation since World War II. The most active onshore fault systems are the 674 kilometres (419 mi) Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault with earthquakes frequently occurring at the Bucaramanga Nest around Aratoca, Santander, the 697.4 kilometres (433.3 mi) Romeral Fault System in the Central Ranges (Popayán 1983 and Armenia 1999) and the 921.4 kilometres (572.5 mi) long Eastern Frontal Fault System in the Eastern Ranges. [35], The French arrived in Armenia in the late evening on Friday, December 9 and relieved the exhausted Armenian workers who then returned to Yerevan. Preface A number of the smaller outlying villages away from the larger population centers were also severely affected. Leninakan earthquake in the Armenian region of Spitak 1988 by DiFilm. Author and professor of geopolitics Pierre Verluise detailed in his 1995 book Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, how a French doctor and director of a Leninakan hospital described that he had seen one hundred victims suffering from the syndrome each day during the first three days. The Spitak earthquake shattered the peace of Armenia 32 years ago. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). [23], In late December the last of the survivors that were able to be extricated were pulled from the fallen buildings, rescue operations ceased, and the cleanup began, beginning with the destruction of buildings that were too heavily damaged to be repaired. At that time 20 projects had completed the planning process and some had been approved and construction started. Armenian Earthquake Memorial at the Red Cross Bldg in Washington, D.C. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca arranged for a fund drive, and in Chicago (one of five major Armenian population centers in the US) the community raised $800,000 and donated 20,000 pounds of supplies. The structural damage caused by the Armenian earthquake of 1988 to a just completed hospital in the model city of Stepanavan, Armenia. [15], Waveform modeling established that the faulting originated at a depth of 5 km (3.1 mi) with the epicenter on the Alavar thrust fault on the slopes of the Lesser Caucasus mountains north of Mount Aragats. Noji,2 &A.P. 2:19 [Deleted video] ԿԱՅԱՑՈՒՄ by HaykFilms. Seventy-eight people were killed while on a relief mission to Leninakan when a Soviet Ilyushin Il-76 crashed on approach to the airport there. Yuri S. Mkhitarian, an Armenian State Building Committee official, gave an updated damage report that included some of the outlying communities away from the population centers stating that 342 villages were damaged and another 58 were destroyed. Share. A total of five sub-events occurred in the first eleven seconds and an aftershock measuring 5.8 (local magnitude) occurred four minutes and twenty seconds later. The cities of Spitak, Leninakan (Gyumri) and Kirovakan (Vanadzor) were greatly affected with large losses of life and devastating effects to buildings and other structures. Today marks 32nd anniversary since 1988 earthquake in Armenia. Buildings and other structures were extensively damaged during the earthquake, but roadways and railways also experienced disturbances. Many buildings across the region sustained heavy damage or collapsed. The three cities closest to the fault rupture experienced different levels of damage. It had to do with the 8.2 earthquake that struck Armenia back in 1989 when the country was flattened, killing over 30,000 people in less than four minutes. The negative effect the earthquake had on the economy of Armenia was apparent. Approximately two hundred aftershocks were recorded each day for the first several days of the expedition and at the end of the recording period in February the equipment was still picking up around 100 shocks per day. Washington immediately responded with offers of doctors, medical equipment, and rescue teams, and by the first weekend the first US plane arrived in Yerevan with search and rescue teams and detection dogs. During the earthquake, the northeast-facing side of the Spitak section rode up and over the southwest-facing side. 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. The new plan would deviate from Soviet styles that were found to be rigid and outdated, and would mirror characteristics of the local culture. geknoyan@bcm.tmc.edu A dreadful earthquake struck a densely populated region of Armenia on December 7, 1988. Rebuilding While on site during aftershock monitoring, the US research team verified the presence of soil amplification effects when pronounced difference in readings were observed when compared with nearby rock sites. The Soviets and an American group of architects each devised separate outlines for rebuilding the town of Spitak. Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage. At that time 20 projects had completed the planning process and some had been approved and construction started. Boris Karapetyan, director of earthquake studies at the Yerevan Polytechnical Institute, said of the difficult rebuilding process "Coordination is a major, major problem. Bruce Bolt, a seismologist and a professor of earth and planetary science at the University of California, Berkeley, walked the length of the fault scarp in 1992 and found that the vertical displacement measured 1 m (3.3 ft) along most of the length with the southwest end reaching 1.6 m (5.2 ft). As a result, the region has been plagued by sever earthquakes for thousands of years: an earthquake in 893 A.D. took an estimated 20,000 lives; another in 1667 took 80,000 lives. December 7, 2020, 09:09 Today marks 32nd anniversary since 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The team then set out to determine an accurate velocity model using data from the more accurate telemetry network. [30] Nikolai Ryzhkov, the then Chairman of the Council of Ministers, was awarded the National Hero of Armenia for his work in rebuilding the city following the earthquake. Author and professor of geopolitics Pierre Verluise detailed in his 1995 book Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, how a French doctor and director of a Leninakan hospital described that he had seen one hundred victims suffering from the syndrome each day during the first three days. Beginning with late 1987 the Caucasus region was experiencing a surge in political turmoil with large and near constant demonstrations being held in the capital of Yerevanbeginning in February 1988. The source of the event was a fault rupture 40 kilometers (25 mi) south of the Caucasus Mountains, a mountain range that has been produced by the convergence of the Arabian and the Eurasian tectonic plates. [9], American businessman and philanthropist Armand Hammer, well known to the Soviet Union for his financial pursuits and humanitarian ties, left Los Angeles for Armenia on board a Boeing 727 loaded with 1,000 kg (2,300 lb) of medical supplies that were provided by the American Red Cross. [39], As of July 1989 about $500 million in donations had been delivered to the Armenians from 113 countries. Bruce Bolt, a seismologist and a professor of earth and planetary science at the University of California, Berkeley, walked the length of the fault scarp in 1992 and found that the vertical displacement measured 1 m (3 ft 3 in) along most of the length with the southwest end reaching 1.6 m (5 ft 3 in). Officials acknowledged that the work to complete the rebuilding may take up to five years or longer, a supposition that more than doubled Gorbachev’s estimate of two years. Change ). The 7 December 1988, magnitude M s 6.8, earthquake in northern Armenia caused unprecedented destruction and fatalities within the epicentral region for an earthquake of this size. Mikhail Gorbachev with Ronald Reagan and George H.W. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Armenian: Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ, Spitaki yerkrasharj), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). On 7 December 1988 a devastating earthquake in northern Armenia killed 25,000 and left hundreds of thousands homeless in the Soviet republic. Damage The highway's embankment failed, and though the site was repaired immediately, the resulting damage to the highway caused considerable delay in getting people and supplies into and out of the area following the disaster. A director, a doctor, a rescuer - stories of three people who survived the terrible earthquake in Armenia in 1988 and rebuilt their lives 1988: Death toll rises in Armenian earthquake. [34] Rock Aid Armenia, also known in earlier stages as Live Aid Armenia, was a humanitarian effort by the British music industry to raise money to help those affected by the earthquake. Earthquake engineering experts scrutinized building construction styles and found fault in the poorly constructed apartments and other buildings that were built during the Era of Stagnation under the rule of Leonid Brezhnev. Their injuries were minor, but one person did suffer a broken arm. 08 Dec 1988 description Armenia Earthquake In Armenia 1988 by ArmenianEducation. December 7, 1988, 11:41 - Richter magnitude 6.9 December 7, 1988, 11:45 – Richter magnitude 5.8. Baxter International, an American health care company with headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois, designed and built a flying medical lab set up with 20 dialysis machines to be used with victims suffering from crush syndrome (trauma associated with building collapses), but were unable to get started for four days until the visas were available. Then-Armenian Assembly Board Chairman Hirair Hovnanian leading a delegation bringing humanitarian relief to Armenia after the 1988 earthquake WASHINGTON, D.C. – On the 30th Anniversary of the Spitak Earthquake, the Armenian Assembly of America (Assembly) remembers the thousands of lives lost and villages destroyed after a massive earthquake, registering 6.9 on the Richter Scale, struck… A team of earthquake and engineering experts from the United States spent a period of time in Armenia in December 1988 and January 1989. Moving westward closer to the central segments though, a transition of the fault type was becoming apparent, where an almost equal distribution of reverse fault mechanisms were observed as the strike-slip type. Private donations from the United States were also significant. The shocks at the southeastern segment indicated right-lateral strike-slipmovement along a nearly vertical fault, and may have been related to the Alavar fault. The first well-documented case of liquefaction in gravelly sands was in regard to the 1983 Borah Peak earthquake in the United States. Several investigations of that event took place in the 1980s and early 1990s and the primary conclusions were that a critical condition for liquefaction to occur in that type of soil was the presence of a low permeable crust that did not allow pore water pressures to subside and that the assessment method and associated standard penetration test values used with sandy soils also applied to gravelly soils. [14] During the earthquake, the northeast-facing side of the Spitak section rode up and over the southwest-facing side. At least 25,000 people killed, 19,000 injured and 500,000 homeless in the Leninakan-Spitak-Kirovakan areas of northern Armenia, then part of the USSR. 1988 Armenian earthquake. Whenever the plates moving beneath Armenia interlock, pressure builds. In Leninakan there was a need for 18 new hospitals, 12 of which could be funded with the assistance of the republics of the Soviet Union, but foreign help would be required to build six additional facilities. The soviet geophysicists detonated 100 kilograms of TNT in a hole drilled near the mainshock epicenter and the resulting shock waves were detected and used to help pinpoint a more accurate crustal velocity value of 5.3 to 5.4 km/s. The tapes were then played back and the P-wave and S-wave arrival times were used to automatically determine aftershock locations. Officials acknowledged that the work to complete the rebuilding may take up to five years or longer, a supposition that more than doubled Gorbachev's estimate of two years. On the east end the events were shallow while the western side, where the majority of the larger aftershocks were concentrated, the hypocenters were up to 14 km (8.7 mi) deep. Following an invitation by the Soviets for a critique of their plan, the American proposal was ultimately accepted as the way forward. The Spitak Earthquake also called Gyumri Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7.2 , that took place on December 7, 1988 at 11:41 local time (07:41 UTC) in the Spitak region of Armenia, then part of the Soviet Union. Most collapsed, killing two-thirds of the doctors, destroying equipment and medicine, and reducing the capacity to handle the critical medical needs in the region. They sustained themselves on the food supplies — fruit salad, pickles, and smoked ham — that were available in the basement for 35 days before their rescue in January. ( Log Out /  The final stage concluded with seven weeks (through the end of February 1989) of continued monitoring with a reduced capacity of twenty units Baxter International, an American health care company with headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois, designed and built a flying medical lab set up with 20 dialysis machines to be used with victims suffering from crush syndrome, but were unable to get started for four days until the visas were available. Aftershocks It took six weeks from the creation of the song to completion of the disc and with almost two million copies sold, the foundation was able to build 47 schools and three orphanages for the victims of the disaster. The range is situated along an active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps in southern Europe to the Himalayas in Asia. [25][26] Igor Nesterov, (head of seismology of USSR) said the Leninakan seismic station was destroyed so there was no way of knowing whether it received reports of an earthquake coming its way, although Nesterovs’ colleagues later said the station was not able to receive reports because of the lack of instruments it carried. the extent of human damage that was sus­ tained. A group of French recording artists and actors came together with the French writer and composer Charles Aznavour to record the 1989 song “Pour toi Arménie” (For you Armenia). The east-central segment coincided with the surface breaks between Spitak and Gekhasar, while the west-central portion’s break was concealed under an anticline and was not visible at the surface. In support of the relief effort, recording artists united to produce several music-related contributions for the victims of the quake. Their injuries were minor, but one person did suffer a broken arm. American businessman and philanthropist Armand Hammer, well known to the Soviet Union for his financial pursuits and humanitarian ties, left Los Angeles for Armenia on board a Boeing 727 loaded with 2,300 pounds of medical supplies that were provided by theAmerican Red Cross. The Holy Saviour Church in Gyumriafter the earthquake In the days following the earthquake, the normally quiet airstrip was receiving up to 180 flights per day carrying food, medical supplies, and disaster management experts. As a result, ... Goenjian and colleagues have been conducting ongoing research among survivors of the devastating 1988 6.9 earthquake in Armenia. The group, including a structural engineer who specialized in seismic-resistant designs, agreed that building inadequacies were the primary reason why the strong (but not huge) earthquake was so damaging, although the freezing temperatures also played a role in the unusually high death toll. 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